Member Publication: Who to Blame and How to Solve It: Mothers’ Perceptions of Work–Family Conflict Across Western Policy Regimes

Please check out the recent publication by OOW member Caitlyn Collins. 2020. “Who to Blame and How to Solve It: Mothers’ Perceptions of Work–Family Conflict Across Western Policy Regimes.” Journal of Marriage and Family 82 (3): 849–74.

Abstract:

Objective

This study compares mothers’ perceptions of work–family conflict in four countries that exemplify different work–family policy approaches: Sweden, Germany, Italy, and the United States.

Background

Scholars have examined the impact of culture and work–family policy on mothers cross‐nationally, primarily using quantitative methods. Thus, sociologists have a good understanding of both work–family policy structures and outcomes, but the intervening processes that play out in working mothers’ daily lives are not well understood.

Method

This article begins to fill this gap, drawing on interviews with 109 middle‐class employed mothers in Stockholm, Berlin, Rome, and Washington, D.C. The author investigates how work–family conflict is mitigated—or not—in countries with policies that reflect different ideals of motherhood, employment, and gender equality.

Results

Interviews reveal confirming evidence of cross‐national variation in mothers’ levels or perceived scope of conflict. Mothers also (a) attribute blame for their work–family conflict to different sources and (b) employ different solutions to resolve it.

Conclusion

Work–family conflict is not an inevitable feature of contemporary life. Rather, it is the product of public policies and cultural attitudes that shape women’s desires, expectations, and behaviors regarding work and family. Elucidating the processes of perception, attribution, and resolution is crucial to understand the political and cultural conditions that facilitate the combination of motherhood and employment.

ILR Review: Open Access of Current Issue about Gender & Employment Relations

See below a message from Rosemary Batt and Lawrence Kahn, editors of ILR Review:

Friends,

Please take advantage of free downloads of all articles and book reviews in our May special issue on gender and employment relations. Good through June 20, 2020.

The May issue continues our long term interest in and commitment to research on gender and the employment relationship.  It includes research on the impact of sexual orientation on labor market outcomes, gender quotas on corporate boards, the behavior of female managers, and the intersection of religious and gender discrimination.  In addition, the issue includes research on the appropriate use of statistics in assessing the extent of discrimination based on race and gender.  The papers in this issue use unique data and state of the art methods to study an area of great policy importance and public interest.

Also note our special book review section on

Technological Encounters: How New Writing on Technology Can Inform Modern Labor Studies (guest editors Steve Viscelli and Beth Gutelius)

We hope you are well during this difficult crisis.

Sincerely,

Rose Batt and Larry Kahn

If you have any difficulty gaining access to articles, please contact Tom Rushmer for your special editorial board member access link – (tsr33@cornell.edu)

ILR Review Volume: 73, Number: 3 (May 2020)

Articles

Transgender Status, Gender Identity, and Socioeconomic Outcomes in the United States
Christopher S. Carpenter, Samuel T. Eppink, and Gilbert Gonzales

Abstract: This article provides the first large-scale evidence on transgender status, gender identity, and socioeconomic outcomes in the United States, using representative data from 35 states in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which asked identical questions about transgender status and gender identity during at least one year from 2014 to 2017. More than 2,100 respondents, aged 18 to 64 years, identified as transgender. Individuals who identify as transgender are significantly less likely to be college educated and less likely to identify as heterosexual than are individuals who do not identify as transgender. Controlling for these and other observed characteristics, transgender individuals have significantly lower employment rates, lower household incomes, higher poverty rates, and worse self-rated health compared to otherwise similar men who are not transgender.

Multiple Discrimination against Female Immigrants Wearing Headscarves
Doris Weichselbaumer

Abstract: Western countries have experienced a large influx of Muslim immigrants, and concomitantly the Muslim headscarf has become the subject of major controversy. Drawing on theories of stigma, social identity, and multiple discrimination/intersectionality, this study examines the effect of wearing this headscarf in the German labor market. The author applies the method of correspondence testing that allows measuring discrimination in a controlled field setting. Findings show that when applying for a job in Germany, women with a Turkish migration background are less likely to be invited for an interview, and the level of discrimination increases substantially if the applicant wears a headscarf. The results suggest that immigrant women who wear a headscarf suffer discrimination based on multiple stigmas related to ethnicity and religion.

Hukou Status and Individual-Level Labor Market Discrimination: An Experiment in China
Uwe Dulleck, Jonas Fooken, and Yumei He

Abstract: This article examines discrimination based on hukou status, a legal construct that segregates locals and migrants in urban China. Local and migrant household helpers were recruited as experimental participants to interact in a standard gift exchange game (GEG) as well as a new variant of the GEG, called the wage promising game (WPG). The WPG uses non-binding wage offers and final wages that employers set after observing effort. In the GEG, both statistical and preference-based discrimination may motivate employers to offer lower wages to migrants than to locals, whereas in the WPG the statistical motive is excluded. Results reveal discrimination against migrants and show that preference-based discrimination is an important employer motive.

The Relationship between Prejudice and Wage Penalties for Gay Men in the United States
Ian Burn

Abstract: This article estimates the empirical relationship between prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuality and the wages of gay men in the United States. It combines data on prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuality from the General Social Survey with data on wages from the U.S. Decennial Censuses and American Community Surveys—both aggregated to the state level. The author finds that a one standard deviation increase in the share of individuals in a state who are prejudiced toward homosexuals is correlated with a decrease in the wages of gay men of between 2.7% and 4.0%. The results also suggest that the prejudice of managers is responsible for this correlation. The author finds that a one standard deviation increase in the share of the managers in a state who are prejudiced toward homosexuals is associated with a 1.9% decrease in the wages of gay men. The author finds no evidence that the wage penalty for gay men is correlated with the prejudice of customers or co-workers.

Are Female Managers More Likely to Hire More Female Managers? Evidence from Germany
Mario Bossler, Alexander Mosthaf, and Thorsten Schank

Abstract: This article investigates whether there is state dependence in the gender composition of managers in German establishments; that is, whether the number of hired female managers depends on the past hiring decisions of an establishment. Using administrative data, the authors apply dynamic linear models, thereby accounting for unobserved heterogeneity and the endogeneity of lagged dependent variables. Results show that hiring female managers leads to the hiring of more female managers in the subsequent period. Hiring rates for male managers follow a similar pattern in that they are more likely to hire more male managers.

Winner of the 2019 Best Paper Competition:

LERA/ILR Review Special Series in Employment Relations

Average Gaps and Oaxaca–Blinder Decompositions: A Cautionary Tale about Regression Estimates of Racial Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
Tymon Słoczyński

Abstract: Using a recent result from the program evaluation literature, the author demonstrates that the interpretation of regression estimates of between-group differences in wages and other economic outcomes depends on the relative sizes of subpopulations under study. When the disadvantaged group is small, regression estimates are similar to the average loss for disadvantaged individuals. When this group is a numerical majority, regression estimates are similar to the average gain for advantaged individuals. The author analyzes racial test score gaps using ECLS-K data and racial wage gaps using CPS, NLSY79, and NSW data, and shows that the interpretation of regression estimates varies substantially across data sets. Methodologically, he develops a new version of the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition, in which the unexplained component recovers a parameter referred to as the average outcome gap. Under additional assumptions, this estimand is equivalent to the average treatment effect. Finally, the author reinterprets the Reimers, Cotton, and Fortin decompositions in the context of the program evaluation literature, with attention to the limitations of these approaches.

Occupational Skill Mismatch: Differences by Gender and Cohort
John T. Addison, Liwen Chen, and Orgul D. Ozturk

Abstract: The authors deploy a measure of occupational mismatch based on the discrepancy between the portfolio of skills required by an occupation and the array of abilities possessed by the worker for learning those skills. Using data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97), they report distinct gender differences in match quality and changes in match quality over the course of careers. They also show that a substantial portion of the gender wage gap stems from match quality differences among the college educated. College-educated females show a significantly greater likelihood of mismatch than do males. Moreover, individuals with children and those in more flexible occupations tend to experience a larger degree of mismatch. Cohort effects are also evident in the data: College-educated males of the younger cohort (NLSY97) are worse off in terms of match quality compared to the older cohort (NLSY79), even as the younger cohort of women is doing better on average.

Where Women Make a Difference: Gender Quotas and Firms’ Performance in Three European Countries
Simona Comi, Mara Grasseni, Federica Origo, and Laura Pagani

Abstract: The authors study the effect of corporate board gender quotas on firm performance in France, Italy, and Spain. The identification strategy exploits the exogenous variation in mandated gender quotas within country and over time and uses a counterfactual methodology. Using firm-level accounting data and a difference-in-difference estimator, the authors find that gender quotas had either a negative or an insignificant effect on firm performance in the countries considered with the exception of Italy, where they find a positive impact on productivity. The authors then focus on Italy. Using a novel data set containing detailed information on board members’ characteristics, they offer possible explanations for the positive effect of gender quotas. The results provide an important contribution to the policy debate about the optimal design of legislation on corporate gender quotas.

Book Reviews

Strong Governments, Precarious Workers: Labor Market Policy in the Era of Liberalization.
By Philip Rathgeb. Reviewed by Jens Arnholtz.

Beaten Down, Worked Up: The Past, Present, and Future of American Labor.
By Steven Greenhouse. Reviewed by Ruth Milkman.

Living and Dying on the Factory Floor: From the Outside In and the Inside Out.
By David Ranney. Reviewed by Robert Bruno.

Book Review Symposium

Technological Encounters: How New Writing on Technology Can Inform Modern Labor Studies
Steve Viscelli and Beth Gutelius.

Books Reviewed:

·   Artificial Unintelligence: How Computers Misunderstand the World. By Meredith Broussard.

·   Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor. By Virginia Eubanks.

·   Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley from Building a New Global Underclass. By Mary L. Gray and Siddharth Suri.

·   Gigged: The End of the Job and the Future of Work. By Sarah Kessler.

·   Hustle and Gig: Struggling and Surviving in the Sharing Economy. By Alexandrea J. Ravenelle.

·   Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. By Cathy O’Neil.

Job Posting: Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at Warwick Business School

“Management insights for tackling grand challenges: the case of climate-related financial risks in the financial investment industry”

The four-year project is led by Dr. Katharina Dittrich and located within the Organisation and HRM (OHRM) group at Warwick Business School. It involves the principal investigator, two postdoctoral research fellows and a PhD student.

This is an exciting opportunity to

  • Conduct research on a pressing societal concern (climate change)
  • Develop real-world impact
  • Work with a team of highly committed and motivated researchers
  • Be part of a thriving community of organisational researchers working with practice, process and institutional approaches
  • Develop your academic career and network

The project

Despite the importance and significance of climate change for our planet and society, the finance sector for a long time has neglected climate change. In recent years, financial firms have realized that climate change poses a significant material risks to financial assets and the stability of financial markets. Yet, investors are ill-equipped to deal with these risks. There is a dearth of climate-related financial information, risk models do not provide the forward-looking scenario analysis required for climate change, and short-term orientation is still the dominant view amongst many working in financial firms. The challenge of climate risk is that it is complex, multi-dimensional, far-reaching in breadth and magnitude, and nothing like the traditional risks in finance. Tackling climate-related financial risks is beyond the power of any single firm and involves a large ecosystem of organizations, including financial investors, data providers, consultancies, regulators and NGOs.

Of relevance to this challenge is a recent stream of research in management and organisation studies that investigates how organizations tackle these large-scale, complex, enduring problems, referred to as ‘grand challenges’ (Ferraro, Etzion, & Gehman, 2015; George, Howard-Grenville, Joshi, & Tihanyi, 2016). This research has helped to highlight the macro processes of institutional change and to uncover the contributions of single organizations and multi-stakeholder initiatives to solving grand challenges. While much can be learned from this research, it leaves open how organizations change what they do when they are caught in a complex web of interactions with other organizations. How do they overcome the practical challenges that emerge in the interactions with others? How do the local experiments in multiple organizations interact and contribute to emerging collective approaches to the large-scale problem? Drawing on practice theory (Nicolini, 2012) and innovative ethnographic research methods, this four-research project traces in detail the actions of 10-12 organizations in their efforts to address climate-related financial risks, including different kinds of investors (e.g., pension funds, insurance companies, asset managers etc.), data providers and consultancies, investor networks, and NGOs.

The position

This recruitment is for a full-time, three years fixed position. The anticipated starting date is September/ October 2020.

As part of the project you will

1.         Collect ethnographic data on the day-to-day activities of people in different organizations, through the use of observations, formal and informal interviews and the collection of documents. Researchers will spend approximately three days per week in the field to collect data and use the remaining days to elaborate on field notes, read documents, and engage in analysis. Data collection will be conducted in organizations in the UK (primarily London) and, to a lesser extent, in Europe, so some flexibility and willingness to travel is required.

2.         Participate in regular face-to-face or virtual team meetings to share insights from data collection and analysis.

3.         Write or contribute to top academic publications.

4.         Attend and present research findings and papers at academic conferences, and contribute to the external visibility of the team and the department.

5.         Organise and deliver various impact activities aimed at disseminating research findings to project partners and other practitioners, including internal workshops with the organizations studied, targeted talks at practitioner conferences, conversations with policy-makers and practitioner-oriented reports & publications.

Requirements

You will possess a PhD degree in a relevant area of Business and Management, Sociology, Political Sciences or Human Geography (or you will shortly be obtaining it). You should have a strong background in one or more of the following areas:

  • Organization Theory
  • Practice Theory
  • Climate change
  • Financial markets/ investments
  • Risk management
  • Qualitative research methods
  • Ethnography

You should have excellent skills in qualitative data collection and analysis as well as administration and communication.

Application

More information on the position can be found here

The deadline for applications is June 9th.

Candidates should provide their application form, a CV, list of publications and two selected papers, either published or unpublished. Informal enquiries to Katharina.dittrich@wbs.ac.uk are welcome.

Job Posting: Postdoc at Northeastern University

Postdoctoral Research Associate at Northeastern University

We are seeking a postdoctoral research associate to support an NSF-funded project to study the diffusion of gender equity ideas through university and scholarly networks. The postdoctoral research associate will join an interdisciplinary team led by Professor Kathrin Zippel and Assistant Professor Laura K. Nelson in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Northeastern University in Boston, MA. This is a two-year, full-time, benefits-eligible position starting Fall 2020.

The postdoctoral research associate will play a leading role in the collection and analysis of quantitative/digitized data, including relational data and text-as-data; to help author reports, papers and journal articles using project data; and to help coordinate tasks across the research team.

Qualifications:

  • A PhD in social science, data science, network science or related fields by the time of hire
  • Knowledge or interest in gender (equity), intersectionality, diversity, organizations, STEM fields, higher education, and/or the diffusion of ideas
  • Proficiency with a programming language, preferably R, Python, Julia, or Go
  • Experience with either computational text analysis techniques, social network analysis, or both
  • Ability to work independently and willingness to work in an interdisciplinary team
  • Strong organizational and communication skills
  • Experience with, interest in, or openness to open science practices and reproducibility

Review of applications will start May 24, 2020, and will continue until the position is filled.

Apply here.

Call for Short Essays: Sociology and Biological and Evolutionary Sciences.

Call for short essays about sociology and evolutionary for This View of Life.

We cordially invite you to contribute to a new series of short essays on the connection between sociology and the biological and evolutionary sciences. Never has it been more important to re-examine this connection in the light of the current pandemic and its aftermath.

The essays will be published in the online magazine This View of Life, which is at the forefront of publishing academically informed content on all aspects of human affairs from an evolutionary perspective. TVOL reaches a diverse audience of academic professionals, public policy experts and the informed general public across the world (typically between 30K-50K pageviews/mo). The essays will be published first individually to be the center of attention and then collected into a special issue for long term visibility (go here for current special issues). We expect that our special issue will provide a foundation for further discussion and exploration of collaborative potential.

We are extending the invitation to the chairs of all the ASA sections, in addition to members of the Evolution, Biology, and Society section, to include the full diversity of sociological perspectives.

The essays should reflect upon the following theme:

A biologically evolved virus finds an environmental niche it can successfully exploit and upends human society.  Whether we celebrate or fear modern technology, whether we applaud or dismiss science, whether we view health as a personal or public concern, an invisible pathogen forces us to recognize our interdependence both with the natural world and with each other. 

Of course, sociology begins with the importance of social connection, highlights the social processes that shape human outcomes, and takes account of social groups and the cultures they create when explaining human behavior.  And we now know that these insights take us back to, not away from, our evolved biology:  that the environment influences genetic expression; that culture influences evolutionary change; that the need for group support and social connection are the evolved lodestone of our species and are reflected in the functioning of our brains.

The COVID -19 crisis provides an opportunity for sociologists to reflect upon the history of evolutionary thinking and current understandings in their area, and the potential benefits and costs of a more transdisciplinary vision. These reflections, representing the full diversity of sociological perspectives, will be valuable in their own right in addition to their relevance to the current moment. Hence, explicit connections to the COVID-19 crisis are encouraged but should not overshadow the theme of the past, present, and future of evolutionary thinking in the discipline.

The essays should be approximately 1000 words in length, which is enough for a concise statement and can link to the larger literature. Please let us know within two weeks if you can take part. If you are unable, please help us identify someone else in your section to approach, since it is important for the series to reflect the diversity in the discipline. We have flexibility in due dates but would like to receive at least some essays by June 1. Authors who accept our invitation will receive guidelines about formatting and other details.

This project is a collaboration between Russell Schutt (current chair of the Evolution, Biology and Society section), Rengin Firat (EBS Council member), David Sloan Wilson (Editor in Chief of TVOL) and Eric Michael Johnson (Managing Editor of TVOL).  David has made foundational contributions to theories of social evolution and Eric’s recently completed PhD thesis is on the early impact of Darwin’s Theory on sociological thinking.  Russ studies social engagement in relation to organizational functioning and health outcomes, with connections to social neuroscience, evolutionary theory, and psychosocial treatments for serious mental illness.  Rengin’s research focuses on inter-group relations and racial disparities of health and well-being with a neurosociological approach.

We hope you, your loved ones, your colleagues and students remain safe and healthy throughout the pandemic.  We look forward to hearing from you within two weeks so we can assemble our roster of authors for the series.

Thanks for considering our request,

Russ, Rengin, David, Eric

Russell Schutt
2020 Chair, Evolution, Biology and Society section
Professor of Sociology, University of Massachusetts Boston
Clinical Research Staff Scientist I, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Lecturer (part-time), Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School

Rengin Firat
Council member, Evolution, Biology and Society section at ASA
Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of California, Riverside

David Sloan Wilson
President, Evolution Institute, and Editor in Chief, This View of Life
SUNY Distinguished Professor of Biology and Anthropology, Binghamton University

Eric Michael Johnson
Managing Editor, This View of Life

Member Publication: Framing and Managing Lean Organizations in the New Economy

Please check out the recent publication by Darina Lepadatu and OOW member Thomas Janoski. 2020. Framing and Managing Lean Organizations in the New Economy. Routledge.

Here is a short description of the book:

This multidisciplinary book argues that lean production is now the dominant theory of the division of labor replacing “Fordism” and the vague term “post-Fordism.” The first part of the book examines the recognition of lean production in five disciplines from its strong focus in industrial engineering to a weaker recognition in sociology.

The second part discusses three varieties of lean production: Toyotism, Nikeification and Waltonism. As the strongest form at Toyota and Honda, “Toyotism” emphasizes both teamwork and just-in-time inventory. Other corporations emulate Toyotism—Ford, Nissan and McDonalds—but their efforts pale in comparison. A middling form of lean at Nike, Apple and Google is “Nikeification” based on offshoring that is teamwork at home and Fordism abroad. The least form is “Waltonism” that only uses a strong just-in-time inventory system, while Costco and Amazon use more teamwork.  As sociology has ignored lean production in the new millenium, this book gives it a full theoretical and organizational examination.

For further information and to purchase the book, visit Routledge’s website or Amazon.

Also look for Janoski and Lepadatu’s edited book, International Handbook of Lean Production, coming out later this year at Cambridge University Press.

Job Posting: Professor of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Research at the University of Fribourg

Call for a Full Professor (80%) in Sociology, Social Policy and Social Research beginning February 1, 2021 or by appointment at the Department of Social Work, Social Policy and Global Development at the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Fribourg/CH.

Requirements

  • The applicant holds a doctorate and a habilitation or equivalent qualification. He or she has proven experience in teaching and supervising theses at university level (BA, MA, doctorate) in sociology and social policy (theories, concepts and methods) as broadly as possible bridging German, French and Anglo-Saxon academic traditions.
  • He or she has proven experience in teaching and supervising theses at university level (BA, MA, doctorate). In addition to sociology and (comparative) social policy, the applicant should have large expertise in quantitative social research. Openness towards qualitative social research is a requirement. The candidate has proven skills in managing research projects and raising third-party funds. He or she is integrated into international research networks; existing collaborations within Switzerland are an advantage.
  • Teaching language is German. Very good knowledge of English is also expected for teaching. At the bilingual University of Fribourg, at least a passive knowledge of French is necessary and the readiness to improve this knowledge within two years.

Application submission date

  • 31 May 2020
  • Please submit applications in electronic (PDF) Form to the Dean’s Office of the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Fribourg jobs-lettres@unifr.ch
  • Applications contain a curriculum vitae, a list of publications, a list of research projects and courses as well as five publications important for the profile as PDFs.

Further information